## Polarization

Polarization is a concept that includes light, radiation or magnetism that moves in a certain direction.
In other words, polarization usually refers to human thinking, especially when two perspectives come out, that of two separate people, such as two opposite magnets.

¤ “Polarization” in optics , coined by french physicist Etienne -Louis malus(1775-1812) , from modern Latin polaris “polar”.now transferred the sense that , ” to accentuate a division in a group or system” is recorded by Arthur koestler in 1949.

¤ Causes of polarizability: The greater the distance of electrons from nuclear charge, the less control the nuclear charge has on the charge distribution, and thus the increased polarizability of the atom.

¤ Characteristics of polarization-
Polarization is a phenomenon that is strange for transverse waves (waves, that vibrate in a direction perpendicular to their direction of propagation). Light is a transverse electromagnetic wave (see electromagnetic radiation).
Light can be polarized by reflection or by passing through certain crystals such as filters, which simply transmit vibrations to a plane.

¤ Light polarization is classified into three types depending on horizontal and longitudinal wave movements.

● Linear polarization :- Linear Polarization: The electric field of light is limited to a single plane of propagation.

``               Types of Linear Polarization: Linearly polarized antennas Linear polarization is related to the Earth's surface. It is of two types: Horizontally polarized waves travel parallel to the Earth's surface, whereas vertically polarized waves travel perpendicular to the Earth's surface.``

□ A linear polarizer transmits vibrating light to the plane while an octagonal plane absorbs it. We usually describe a single plane or polarized light beam which we call the pattern of vibration. If the vibration is on one side, the light is linearly polarized.

● Round polarization :- The electric field of light consists of two linear elements that are perpendicular to each other, equal in width, but with a phase difference of phase π/2.
Round Polarization is obtained by either of the two techniques: by changing width-to-length ratio of the patch or the dimensions of the mushroom-like structure.

□ The phenomenon of polarization occurs when light behaves as a two-dimensional oblique wave. Round polarization occurs when two orthogonal electric field component vectors have equal dimensions and exit exactly 90 °, or ¼ of the wavelength phase.

● Elliptical polarization :- In electrodynamics, elliptical polarization is the polarization of electromagnetic radiation such that the tip of a vector in an electric field describes an ellipse at a certain plane and naturally directs the direction of propagation.

□ Elliptical polarization is similar in cases where two elements of the field are not equal and / or they are periodically different at an arbitrary angle.

¤ Other applications for the use of glare-reducing sunglasses in polarization have a lot of resources. In industry, polaroid filters are used to test the pressure/stress analysis of transparent plastics. As light goes through such a plastic, each color of visible light is polarized by its own orientation.

▪︎Polarization, however, is an important property of light that affects even those optical systems that it does not explicitly measure. Light polarization affects the focus of the laser beam, affects the cut-off wavelength of the filter, and can be important in preventing unwanted back reflections.

### Sagata Saha

The secret of success is to do the common thing uncommonly well.

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1. Anneswa Ganguly

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